- 【マクベス解釈 #2】イアン・マッケランによるシェイクスピア演劇論【英語】
- #3/3 マクベス独白の英詩、イメージ、意味、演じ方 by イアン・マッケラン
- sense / sens /
- miraculous / mɜ:ˈækjʌlʌs /
- playwright / ˈpleɪˌraɪt /
- simultaneously / sɪməlˈteɪnɪəsli/
- soliloquy / sʌˈlɪlʌkwi: /
- crudely / ˈkru:dli: /
- finite / fάɪnɑɪt(米国英語) /
Infinite (無限の、無量の、無数の、莫大な、果てしない、不定形の) の逆
- You’ve got to do many more things
to have got to do で「しなければならない」の意味になる。"I've got to go." で「もう行かないと」となるのがよく見る例。
- metaphors / ˈmetʌfɔ:rz /
直喩は、simile / sím(ə)li /
- timbre / ˈtɪmbɜ: /
- eyelids / άɪlìd(米国英語) /
- make up / meɪk ʌp /
(7) 〈話・口実などを〉うまくごまかして作る, でっちあげる; 〈物語などを〉作る.
- line / lάɪn(米国英語) /
(詩の) 1 行
- blank verse
- imagery / ˈɪmʌdʒri:(英国英語) /
- literary / lítərəri /
- device / dɪvάɪs(米国英語) /
- rather / rάːðə /
- trip / tríp(米国英語) /
Trip has several different meanings. I believe he is using it here as '(of words) flow lightly and easily.' I believe this based on how he speaks the line 'There would have been a time for such a word' very choppy
- lane / leɪn /
- pun / pˈʌn(米国英語) /
- gust / gˈʌst(米国英語) /
- meager / míːgə /
- mean / mi:n /
- dilemma / dɪˈlemʌ /
- pentameter / penˈtæmɪtər /
a line in poetry which has five stressed syllables; the rhythm of poetry with five stressed syllables in a line:
Most of Shakespeare's verse is written in iambic pentameter (= five pairs of syllables with an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable).
- oblivion / əˈblɪviən /
If this workshop’s done anything I hope it's got the, in my view, wrong belief that so Shakespeare's verses, music, and all you have to find out is the tune, and everything will be alright. Rather, I believe that if you look after the sense the sound will look after themselves.
I saw Maurizio Pollini play a late Beethoven sonata recently, and I had a strange feeling for about five miraculous seconds that I didn't know whether he was putting the music into the piano or whether he was taking it out of the piano.
And acting, at its best, Shakespeare, I think, is, of that nature, that the actor is the playwright and the character simultaneously.
This can only be achieved by the actor having total awareness of all the complexities of Shakespeare.
So if we were to take a speech like Macbeth's last soliloquy, tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow, which to crudely summarize as a description of total blackness, total despair that life is finite, it isn't enough just to say that and put that quality of despair into the voice and just hope it and just follow the rhythms.
You've got to do many more things as well. You have to think and have analyzed in rehearsal totally, so that your imagination of being fed by the concrete metaphors, concrete images, pictures, can then feed through into the body, into gesture, into timbre voice, into eyelids, into every part of the actor’s makeup, so that it does seem, as I've just said, that he is making it up as he goes along although that the actor, of course, knows that he isn’t.
But to start at the top with the first line and I'll try as far as possible to relate this to blank verse. But it would be impossible for me not to mention imagery and also other sorts of other literary devices which we haven't been talking about generally today.
Seyton says to Macbeth
the Queen, My Lord, is dead
, and Macbeth replies
She should have died hereafter
which is a short line
she should have died hereafter
indicating that there should be a pause, I think. And during that pause in performance with the audience rather round me, as you are now, I used to take that advantage of that pause to catch the audience's eye and begin the soliloquy which is Macbeth, me, the actor, too, talking directly sharing my thoughts with you, the audience.
Hereafter introduces one element of time, the future.
Then we get a regular blank verse line.
There would have been a time for such a word.
dee-dum dee-dum dee-dum dee-dum dee-dum
There would have been a time. Stressed "Time". The speech is about time.
For such a word. Word is the last line. What word, is it “she, the Queen?” Is it hereafter? Is it time?
There's something about that line which trips in Hamlet's words. Tick-tocks like a clock. There would have been a time for such a word It's leading on to the next line and here comes the word which is important: tomorrow
tomorrow - and tomorrow and tomorrow. there’re only two words in that line, an irregular line, given weight by its repetition three times. And the tripping of “there would have been a time for such a word” slows down on tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow. The rhythm is important.
It's also a nonsense word if you say it three times. If you say it 20 times like a kid skipping tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow tomorrow tomorrow tomorrow tomorrow tomorrow tomorrow tomorrow. What does that word mean tomorrow? It's beginning to have the lack of meaning, I think, that Macbeth detects his own life at this point.
creeps in this petty pace from day to day, and here comes the first metaphor, the first image. And the rhythm is beginning to creep, is beginning to plod, like someone plodding along a country lane. It’s footsteps now, not the tick-tock of a clock
creeps in this petty pace from day to day, well we've had tomorrow we've now got today at the end of the line from day to day but it leads on to the next line to not day but the last syllable of recorded time and it slows up, even more, ending up with a very important word time at the end of the sentence.
syllable, I wonder if bell isn't the bell of a clock which records time and we get a regular line: and all our yesterdays have lighted fools. Yesterday, we've had tomorrow we've had today we've now got yesterday we've got the whole complex of time Macbeth is not just talking about himself he's talking about eternity. I'm going to say something about it.
All our yesterdays have lighted fools
the way to dusty death.
and that's where the sentence ends in the middle of the next line but one has to carry on and speak it as a line and a half
all our yesterday's have lighted fools the way to dusty death
What is the image there that I must have clearly in my mind so that I can get the right emotion of despair. It's what it's a fool walking along a dusted path plodding, creeping with petty pace. A fool is what a village idiot wandering along a country lane with what a guttering candle, I don't know a lantern?
Fool is a pun of course. Fools likely as fool Feste in Twelfth Night, professional entertainers, that will be relevant in a moment, and I have to contain in my mind as I say the word fool that it is a pun, see two sorts of fools.
That line is completed with the shock of the harsh rhythm of
out out brief candle!
The fool's the candle has caught a gust of wind and is blown out and he collapses into a dusty death in the unmade Road of Elizabethan England.
The last candle or light we saw in the play is Lady Macbeth’s candle which she was carrying in her sleepwalking scene. And she is dead. It's Lady Macbeth's death which is being talked about in the speech, it is the fool's death, village idiots death, it's going to be Macbeth’s death, it's going to be everybody's death.
It's at this time about this time Shakespeare wrote Macbeth that candles will be used in indoor theaters and that may be relevant, too, when we get on to the next line which is
life's but a walking shadow
“Walking gentleman” is a phrase we still use in the theatre meaning someone who is available in any company to walk on and play a meager part. He's the lowliest member of a company. But life is not even a walking gentleman, he's a walking shadow - less than even the meanest player. And the hand is completed by a poor player
life's but a walking shadow, a poor player
that struts and frets his hour upon the stage
And although Macbeth is talking about time, about life, Shakespeare is making those vasty concepts very concrete, very particular, not just to Macbeth himself, but to the actor who is playing Macbeth. Because we're now talking about players and the audience who know they are an audience know that McKellen playing Macbeth is an actor. They are beginning to be drawn into Macbeth's dilemma as Macbeth relates it to a player to an actor. That's a regular line
that struts and frets his hour upon the stage
, and we're reminded perhaps of the king Cambyses and the Marlovian regular verse, and people who do stamp out the rhythm as they parade
that struts and frets his hour, a concept of time, upon the stage, and then is heard no more. And a sentence and a thought, middle of the line however,
it is a tale told by an idiot
“idiot” reaches back into the fool who is walking along the country lane with a candle that went out.
full of sound and fury
end of line. And the last line is
and the beats of the rest of that pentameter are not there because the end of the speech is total silence, total oblivion, total emptiness.
So much one could say about it but just let me run through the last lines, the last words of each line and you will see that they add up to what the speech is all about.
hereafter, word, tomorrow, today, time, fools, candle, player, stage, tale, fury, nothing.
I must have all that in my mind as I'm going through it. Not so that you the audience can understand those complexities because I'm not giving a lecture. I think the poetry and the rhythm and all those devices that Shakespeare uses are not for the audience's benefit, they are for the actors. So that having absorbed them into his heart and his mind he can then express them with all the other things at his command, which are his body, his facial expression, and if the production is working well, the way the production is blocked, is arranged, the way the scenery is painted, and the way the lights are lit.